Artificial Neural Network (Simulated neural network)


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a class of machine learning models inspired by the structure and functionality of biological neural networks in the human brain. ANNs have gained significant attention and popularity due to their ability to learn from data, recognize patterns, and make predictions or decisions in a wide range of applications.

Image source-Google

At a fundamental level, an artificial neural network consists of interconnected nodes, called artificial neurons or simply “neurons,” organized into layers. These layers are typically divided into three types: the input layer, one or more hidden layers, and the output layer. Each neuron receives input signals, processes them, and produces an output signal.


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a computational model inspired by the structure and functioning of the human brain. They are a fundamental component of the field of machine learning and are designed to recognize patterns, learn from data, and make predictions or decisions. An ANN consists of interconnected nodes, called artificial neurons or simply neurons, organized in layers. The three main types of layers in an ANN are the input layer, hidden layers (if any), and the output layer.
Each neuron receives input from the neurons in the previous layer, performs a computation, and produces an output signal. The output is typically passed through an activation function, which introduces non-linearity and enables the network to learn complex relationships. The connections between neurons are represented by weights. Each connection has an associated weight that determines the strength or importance of the connection. During the learning process, the weights are adjusted to minimize the difference between the network’s predicted output and the desired output, typically using optimization algorithms like gradient descent. The process of training an ANN involves presenting it with a set of labeled examples or training data. The network learns by adjusting its weights iteratively based on the errors or discrepancies between its predictions and the actual outputs. This process is known as supervised learning, as the network is guided by the correct answers. Once trained, the ANN can be used to make predictions or classify new, unseen inputs. The input data is propagated through the network, and the output layer produces the network’s prediction or decision.


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are computational models inspired by the structure and functioning of biological neural networks in the human brain. ANNs consist of interconnected artificial neurons (also called nodes or units) organized in layers. Each neuron receives inputs, processes them, and produces an output.

Here’s an overview of the working of Artificial Neural Networks

Image Source-Google

1.Neuron and Activation Function: Each artificial neuron receives multiple inputs, typically represented as numerical values. These inputs are multiplied by respective weights, and the weighted sum is passed through an activation function. The activation function introduces non-linearity and determines the output of the neuron.

 2.   Layers: ANNs are organized into layers, which include an input layer, one or more hidden layers, and an output layer. The input layer accepts the initial inputs, the hidden layers process intermediate representations, and the output layer produces the final output.

 3. Feedforward Propagation: The inputs are fed into the input layer, and the values propagate through the network from one layer to the next. Each neuron in a layer receives inputs from the previous layer, performs the weighted sum and activation function computation, and passes its output to the next layer.

Image Source-Google

 4. Weights and Biases: The connections between neurons are characterized by weights, which represent the strength of the connection. During training, these weights are adjusted to optimize the network’s performance. Additionally, each neuron may have a bias term that helps control the neuron’s activation threshold.

 5.Training and Learning: ANNs are typically trained using a process called supervised learning. It involves presenting a set of input-output pairs (training data) to the network, computing the output of the network, and comparing it to the desired output. The discrepancy between the predicted output and the desired output (called the error) is used to update the weights and biases through a process known as backpropagation.

 6. Backpropagation: Backpropagation is a technique for adjusting the weights and biases of the network based on the calculated error. It involves propagating the error backward through the network, calculating the gradient of the error with respect to the weights and biases, and using this gradient to update the parameters via optimization algorithms like gradient descent.

7.Activation Functions: Activation functions introduce non-linearities into the network, enabling it to model complex relationships. Common activation functions include sigmoid, ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit), and tanh (hyperbolic tangent).

  8.Output and Prediction: Once the inputs have propagated through the network, the output layer produces the final predictions or results based on the problem the network is trained for. The output can be a single value (regression) or a probability distribution over multiple classes (classification).

  9.Testing and Inference: After training, the network is tested using a separate set of data (test data) to evaluate its performance and generalization abilities. In real-world applications, the trained network can be used for inference on new, unseen data to make predictions or classifications.

Image Source-Google


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have a wide range of applications across various fields. Here are some of the common applications of Artificial Neural Networks:
Image and Speech Recognition
Natural Language Processing (NLP)
Recommendation Systems
Financial Analysis and Forecasting
Medical Diagnosis and Prognosis
Autonomous Vehicles
Industrial Process Control
Gaming and Virtual Reality


1. Non-linearity and Complex Patterns
2. Adaptability and Learning
3.Parallel Processing
4. Fault Tolerance and Robustness
5.Feature Extraction and Representation Learning
7.Domain Adaptation
8.Wide Applicability


While Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have numerous advantages, they also have some limitations and disadvantages. Here are some of the key disadvantages of ANNs:
1. Need for Large Amounts of Training Data
2. Computational Complexity and Resources Requirements
3.Black Box Nature
4. Vulnerability to Noisy or Irrelevant Inputs
5.Need for Expertise in Model Design and Tuning
6. Lack of Data Efficiency
7.  Risk of Overfitting
8.Comprehensibility and Interpretability


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become a powerful and versatile tool in the field of artificial intelligence and machine learning. They offer several advantages, including the ability to capture complex patterns, adaptability through learning, parallel processing, fault tolerance, and feature extraction. ANNs have found applications in diverse domains such as image and speech recognition, natural language processing, recommendation systems, finance, healthcare, and more.

However, ANNs also have certain limitations and disadvantages. These include the need for large amounts of training data, computational complexity, the black box nature of the models, vulnerability to noisy inputs, the requirement for expertise in design and tuning, data inefficiency, the risk of overfitting, and challenges in comprehensibility and interpretability.

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Written by - Poluparthi Supriya